Tag Archives: LinnStrument

Public Domain image via Wikimedia Commons

Getting Real on LinnStrument – Saxophone Edition

Guest article by Jeremy Cubert honoring Adolphe Sax

In Part I of this series, I introduced the topic of Getting “Real” on LinnStrument. In Part II, let’s explore playing a modeled saxophone on LinnStrument. As most keyboard / synthesizer / sampler players know, saxophone presets on keyboard instruments leave much to be desired. Often, the basic sound is fairly accurate, but any attempt to move the pitch or tonality around like a saxophone player gives away the fact the listener is hearing a poor imitation of a saxophone.  Antoine-Joseph “Adolphe” Sax (inventor of several instruments including the saxophone) probably would have desired higher audio fidelity of his brainchild by electronic instruments 170 years later.  Fortunately, the synergistic effect of some recent innovations have enabled dramatic improvements.

Sound Generators

Roger Linn’s LinnStrument website has a handy page summarizing Recommended Sound Generators. Sample Modeling instruments are listed under Single-Channel MIDI Sound Generators With Special Advantages for LinnStrument. With respect to Sample Modeling instruments like “The Saxes,” this is a bit of an understatement. While missing certain features (like Y-axis control), these instruments have leapt ahead in realism, especially when combined with LinnStrument.

Sample Modeling “The Saxes” use their own SWAM (Synchronous Wavelength Acoustic Modeling) engine. While the SWAM engine has preferred features for use with LinnStrument (e.g., Y-axis control), it can only be used as a DAW (digital audio workstation) plug-in and is not a standalone instrument.

For those not experienced in the minutia of MIDI (myself included!), Roger provides recommended settings for using LinnStrument with “The Saxes.” There are two pages for settings on each saxophone instrument (Soprano, Alto, and Baritone) – main page and options page as shown below:

Screen Shot 2015-07-27 at 8.34.05 PM

Sax configuration main page

Screen Shot 2015-07-27 at 8.34.30 PM

Sax configuration options page

For convenience, I saved presets for each saxophone in Logic Pro to avoid the process of entering the various parameters each time I use an instrument. Your DAW may also have the ability to save instrument presets.

Although designed to be played on a standard piano keyboard or with a wind controller, the Sample Modeling instruments are ideally suited for LinnStrument because you can access multiple articulations without lifting your finger off the playing surface. For realistic playing, this feature is key.

Thinking Like a Sax Player

Unlike playing a note on a piano, playing a saxophone note is a complex combination of mouth and breath control and pressing the appropriate key combinations on the instrument. Not only does the sax player need to play a particular note at a particular time, she also needs to move from one note to another musically using articulations such as slide, slur, and staccato. Realism in imitating a saxophone is more about what happens between the notes using these articulations.

Thinking like a saxophone player requires not only thinking about the notes you want to play and their duration, but how to get from one note to another. Do you want to play staccato or legato? Slur the notes? Ascend chromatically? On top of these decisions, you need to be aware of the dynamics which can be carefully controlled through breath control.

Many advanced sample libraries provide these articulations through key switches (e.g., press a key to switch to a desired articulation). However, using key switching can be cumbersome and requires timing the key switching with one hand while playing with the other. What if you also want to bend the pitch? That requires another hand to move the wheel and yet another hand to change the modulation. The LinnStrument provides one surface to achieve all of these articulations.

Breath Control

As a wind instrument, dynamic control of a saxophone comes from breath control. On LinnStrument, pressure is the proxy for breath control. I found adjusting the velocity and pressure sensitivity settings on LinnStrument was helpful to varying degrees, depending on the saxophone instrument I was playing (Soprano, Alto, and Baritone).  Velocity and Pressure Sensitivity can be adjusted under Global Settings as shown below:

Configuring LinnStrument Velocity and Pressure Sensitivity

Configuring LinnStrument Velocity and Pressure Sensitivity

Reducing the pressure sensitivity was helpful for higher register playing. Breath control was the most difficult articulation to control for me because of how sensitive the virtual instrument is to changes in pressure.

Sliding and Pitch Bend

After selecting the appropriate pitch bend setting (+/- 12) (under Per-Split Settings -> Bend Range -> 3rd button down from the top row), I found sliding between notes to be very easy and natural as long as I maintain control over the pressure. Slight variations in pressure can cause unwanted squealing from the instrument.

The instrument also has a very sophisticated slurring feature – if you hold down a first note and press a second note while still holding the first note, the note values will slide up chromatically in a very realistic way. However, if you do not want the “chromatic slide” you have to be sure to lift your finger off of the first note before you play the second (Note: These are all monophonic instruments).


Here is a video of one of my first attempts at playing the Sample Modeled Alto Sax:

At this point, I was still having difficulty fully controlling the pressure sensitivity. This improved over time, and I began to appreciate the dynamic range that you can achieve by combining the pressure sensitivity of LinnStrument with the breath control sensitivity of the Sample Modeling’s Saxophone instruments. I suggest adjusting the pressure control on the LinnStrument to find a comfortable setting for your playing.

Below is a video example in a trio context (bass, drums, soprano saxophone). Here, I am using a lighter touch which helps with control of the dynamics and pitch slides.

Suggested Approach

First, you will need to take the time to install the instrument and make the technical adjustments in the plug-in itself and the LinnStrument. The links above should help you with this task. It is very important to adjust the pitch bend setting to +/- 12 on the LinnStrument to take advantage of the full range (12 semitones) of the instrument for sliding.

Second, take the time to get used to the breath control/pressure sensitivity and make adjustments on the LinnStrument. There are three settings for High, Medium, and Low along the bottom row in the settings panel.

Third, practice articulating between notes – staccato, sliding your finger into the next note, and the slurring feature (holding down the first note and holding down a second note for the chromatic slur).

Above all, have fun!

Jeremy Cubert

Jeremy Cubert

Jeremy Cubert

Jeremy Cubert is a solo artist and member of the jazz fusion band Apothecary (www.apothecaryband.com) and international progressive rock band Formativ (www.soundcloud.com/formativ). He has recorded with Jon Anderson and Billy Sherwood of Yes and the bands Quest, Zapotec, History of Ties, and the Archaic Revival.

While primarily a piano and keyboard player, Jeremy has studied and played instruments including the Chapman Stick, LinnStrument, Zendrum, Eigenharp, guitar, Godin MultiOud, and trumpet.

The Jeremy Cubert Project

All screen shots used in this blog post are used with permission from Roger Linn Design. The saxophone image is a Public Domain image via Wikimedia Commons.

Getting “Real” on LinnStrument

Guest article by Jeremy Cubert about imitating real instruments

Jeremy Cubert getting "real" in his studio

Jeremy Cubert getting “real” in his studio

Imitating “real” instruments has been the holy grail of synthesis and sampling for decades. The plethora of keyboard presets with names like guitar, violin, piano, sax, flute etc. hinted at the desire of many players to access these instruments through synthesis.

However, the desire to imitate presented at least two problems:

  1. the sounds were not all that close to the “real” thing, and
  2. expressiveness on standard controllers were limited.

Improvements in computer, sampling, and modeling technology have largely addressed the first problem – the sounds are indeed very, very close. However, the second problem persists and is the Achilles heel of making convincing virtual recordings and performances.

Enter the multi-dimensional controller! With LinnStrument, Roli Seaboard, Haken Continuum, the Eigenharp and others, the musician can readily add natural sounding vibrato, pitch bends, and changes in timbre through micron level movements of fingers.

So, the pieces of the puzzle may finally be in place. Now what?

In this Getting Real series of articles, I am exploring the use of the LinnStrument with sound generators designed to imitate real instruments and how to approach playing them in a realistic way. Let’s consider LinnStrument as a controller, take a look at sound generators, and discuss techniques for achieving realistic performances.

The Controller

As a Chapman Stick player, I was immediately drawn to LinnStrument because the fourths tuning of LinnStrument’s “strings” is identical to the melody side of the Chapman Stick. The combination of pressure sensitivity and the ability to slide between notes make LinnStrument an excellent choice for exploring more nuanced expression.

You can set LinnStrument to light up particular scales to guide you along its 8 rows and 200 keys. I was a little unsure of this feature at first, but it is tremendously helpful – especially when reaching for intervals (e.g., octaves, fourths, and fifths). The ability to play more than one note on a “string” has opened up new possibilities for polyphonic sound sources. Importantly, chord shapes and scales are identical anywhere on the “fretboard.”

The Sounds

The ability to play realistically on LinnStrument depends a great deal on the choice of sound, and setting both the LinnStrument and the sound source to work together. The Logic Pro X file provided on the LinnStrument website is an excellent starting point. However, I soon found myself wishing for more realistic sound generators to try. The LinnStrument website also provides links to sound generators and lists the sound generator’s features that are available to LinnStrument players. Using these resources and my own searches, I came up with the folllowing list of sound generators:

  1. Sample Modeling Saxophones and The Trumpet
  2. Impact Soundworks Turkish Oud
  3. Orange Tree Samples Iconic Bass Jaco
  4. Applied Acoustic Systems (AAS) String Studio 2 and Strum GS2

The first three on the list required a certain leap of faith because there were no demos available – either they would work well or I had made a fairly expensive mistake. AAS provided demos for me to try before buying.

As a general rule, the products that utilize sampling technology require suitable disc space, a robust hard drive, and a good quality audio interface to get the best performance. The AAS products are modeled and require little disc space, however depending on what you are doing you may need to keep on eye on your CPU meter. In my case, I did not have any technical issues with performance using LinnStrument, my MacBook and these sound generators.

Approaching Reality

I am fundamentally a piano player – I think and visualize in piano despite playing several other instruments (with varying degrees of skill). The challenge with imitating a “real” instrument is to try to impose a bit of the mindset of the instrument you are imitating in your thought process. The first instrument I attempted to imitate was drums. My brother (my best critic) would often give me feedback like “listen to real drummers – they could never do what you’re doing.” After a lot of trial and error (and use of another alternate controller, the Zendrum) my virtual drumming improved a great deal.  Here are some suggested steps for approaching reality:

Step One: Think Like A “Fill-In-The-Blank” Player

Step One has both practical and abstract parts. On the practical side, understand the range of the instrument and what can be done with it. For example, some instruments are monophonic so do not play chords. For stringed instruments, it is not possible to play more than one note on a string (although possible to play the notes on different strings). Listen to players carefully to understand their phrasing, how they get from one note to the next, how they articulate notes, how they tune of the instrument, whether they play melodies or chords, and whether they play fast or slow.

Some of the sound generators make this step very easy. For example, many of the sampled instruments only bother sampling notes that are in the range of the instrument. In addition, many include the ability to add articulations either by key switching or automatically (e.g., playing legato will result in a slur or hammer on). Modeled instruments tend to give the musician more options which can lead to very interesting and musical results, but not if you are attempting to imitate the real instrument.

Step Two: Adjust The Controller To Match Your Playing To The Sound Generator

For some sound generators, I needed to adjust the velocity sensitivity on the LinnStrument to the lowest setting because the minimum amount of pressure resulted in maximum velocity and some undesirable results (squeaks, and unwanted vibrato). For other instruments, I adjusted the sensitivity on the sound generator instead. This is a trial and error process that will depend on your playing style. Importantly, the pitch bend will need to be adjusted for each instrument. For a violin, being able to slide a full octave is a wonderful feature. However, most guitar strings would break if you attempted to bend the pitch an entire octave! Imitating a slide guitar may require playing around with the pitch bend settings to obtain realistic results.

Step Three: Be Patient and Get Feedback

Trial and error is the name of the game with this process. You may be able to play some lines using these sound generators that would take twenty years to master on the real thing. On the other hand, the phrasing and transitions may be way off. Be patient with yourself as you adapt to the controller and the sound generator and do not be afraid to experiment. Get feedback from real players.

Step Four: Listen, Listen, Listen

Spend time listening to a variety of players – paying close attention to note transitions and phrasing. Try playing along with songs – preferably solo performances. For several of these instruments, I already have favorite players that I have listened to for many years (e.g., Miles Davis, Michael Brecker, and Jaco Pastorious). Having these masters as points of reference is very, very helpful. In other cases, I actually have played the instrument being imitated (e.g., trumpet, and Oud-like instrument). The modern sound generators are really quite good at getting the sound right. The trick in playing these sound generators is to provide everything else – phrasing, articulation, transitions, realistic harmonies, etc.

Final Thoughts

The sound generators I explored have not quite caught up to LinnStrument’s capabilities. For example, none of the products discussed below permit each voice to receive on a separate MIDI channel, necessary for polyphonic pitch bends and polyphonic Y-axis control.

However, that does not mean LinnStrument is not suited for playing these sounds. The combination of velocity and pressure sensitivity with the ability to bend pitch by sliding your finger provides all that is needed for realistic performances. Do not be shy about contacting plug-in developers to request new features and let them know about LinnStrument.

Future articles in this series will feature various sound generators.  For a preview, here is an improvised trio piece using the Sample Modeled Saxophone, bass, and drums all improvised on the LinnStrument.

Meanwhile, happy playing!

Jeremy Cubert

Jeremy Cubert is a solo artist and member of the jazz fusion band Apothecary (www.apothecaryband.com) and international progressive rock band Formativ (www.soundcloud.com/formativ). He has recorded with Jon Anderson and Billy Sherwood of Yes and the bands Quest, Zapotec, History of Ties, and the Archaic Revival.

While primarily a piano and keyboard player, Jeremy has studied and played instruments including the Chapman Stick, LinnStrument, Zendrum, Eigenharp, guitar, Godin MultiOud, and trumpet.

The Jeremy Cubert Project

Why Y?

Guest article by Roger Linn about exploring LinnStrument Y-axis

Inventor of LinnStrument: Roger Linn

Inventor of LinnStrument: Roger Linn

James Weaver’s most recent article entitled Domo Arigato Tempo Rubato contains an overview of musical expression and some corresponding expressive capabilities of LinnStrument.  That article includes a brief discussion about making expressive variations in timbre on LinnStrument by moving your fingers along the Y-axis.  James reached out to me to shed additional light on Y-axis expressiveness.

For LinnStrument and other expressive instruments, the value of sensing finger pressure (Z-axis) and left/right (X-axis) movement is pretty clear: pressure controls note loudness and left/right movement controls pitch variations.  However, many people are somewhat flummoxed by the concept of controlling timbre via forward/backward finger movements (Y-axis) within one of LinnStrument’s 200 note pads.

What’s timbre? Pronounced tam-ber, it is defined by Oxford Dictionaries as…

“the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity”

In the context of LinnStrument, timbre refers to variations in tone, all of which are musically useful at any note loudness or pitch.  For example, bowing a violin near the bridge results in a sharper tone than bowing near the neck.  Or the tone of a flute can be changed by mouth position or a sax by bite pressure.  Taken together, a skilled performer’s subtle control of loudness, pitch and timbre is a big part of what makes a great instrumental solo great.

Here’s a video I made that demonstrates real time variation in loudness, pitch and timbre, using the Polysynth instrument in the new version of Bitwig Studio coming this summer:

In this video, finger pressure controls a combination of volume and filter frequency, left/right movement controls pitch, and forward/backward movement controls the timbre of the sound source, which in this case is a pulse wave oscillator.  Notice how the timbre changes from thin to full as I move my finger forward and backward, and how the combined variation in loudness, pitch and timbre makes the sound very expressive.  Now consider that what you’re hearing is the simplest synthesizer possible, consisting merely of an oscillator, filter and volume control and nothing else. This would sound roughly like an old telephone dialtone when played from a regular MIDI keyboard’s on/off switches.

So what can you control with the Y-axis?  Ideally you’ll want to use it to vary the fundamental timbre of the source waveform.  If you know a little about MIDI and synthesis, LinnStrument normally sends Y axis information using MIDI Control Change 74 messages.  Here are some ideas for how to control timbre in your sound generator from these CC74 messages:

  • For basic analog synthesis, modulate the pulse width of a pulse oscillator.  This changes the harmonic content of the pulse waveform between a thin and full tone.  If you have Logic Pro X, you can hear what this sounds like.  Download our LinnStrument project file from the LinnStrument Support > Getting Started page. Set your LinnStrument to the “One Channel” settings described in section 4 of that page, then select the track in the Logic file entitled “Simple 3D Pulse Synth”.
  • Also for basic analog synthesis, modulate the level of hard oscillator sync, which creates dramatic changes to the timbre.
  • Additionally for basic analog synthesis, assuming you’re using pressure to modulate the filter frequency, use the Y-axis to modulate the filter resonance.
  • For sampling, you can’t change the fundamental timbre of a sample, but you can use the Y-axis to vary the balance between two or more source samples. For example, one could be a soft sax tone and the other a harsh sax tone. Or one could be a sax sound and another a violin sound.
  • For FM (frequency modulation) synthesis, use the Y-axis to vary the frequency of the modulating oscillator, which changes the timbre of the carrier oscillator.

In summary, using the Y-axis to vary timbre during performance adds a lot of expression and emotion to your musical performance. Given that nature has graciously given this particular universe three dimensions, why not use them all?


Roger's signature

Roger Linn
Roger Linn Design

Domo Arigato Tempo Rubato

An overview of musical expression, and some corresponding expressive capabilities of LinnStrument.

Image from wikipedia.org

Image from wikipedia.org

“The bow can express the affections of the soul: but besides there being no signs that indicate them, such signs, even were one to invent them, would become so numerous that the music, already too full of indications, would become a formless mass to the eyes, almost impossible to decipher.”

-Giuseppe Cambini

One of the great joys of playing an instrument is expressing thoughts and feelings through it. When played in solitude, a musical instrument can act as a relief valve for accumulated stress. When played in public, it can serve as a medium for expressing musical ideas and emotions. Music played expressively can even elicit emotional responses in the listener.

Of course, instruments vary in their capabilities for expressiveness, and there are many facets of musical expression. Let’s take a look at some of these facets.

Understanding musical expression

As Giuseppe Cambini articulated in the quote cited previously, it’s not practical or even desirable to notate all the “affections of the soul” in written music. I would add that expressing ones own soul, and often the soul of the composer, is the joy and privilege of the performer. Facets of this expression include pitch variations, dynamics, timbre, and phrasing.

Pitch variations

On instruments that support it, one very effective means of expression is the act of varying of a note’s pitch while it’s being played. Common examples of this include portamento (pitch bending and sliding), and vibrato (pulsating change of pitch). In a recent conversation with Roger Linn (inventor of LinnStrument) the discussion turned to musical expression as it relates to pitch variations. Here is an excerpt of what he had to say on the subject:

“Subtle variations in pitch are, I think, the largest part of how we identify a particular performer’s style. If someone’s playing, for example, a guitar, the volume and timbre of a note can’t be changed by the performer after it’s plucked. The only thing that can be changed is the pitch. Most people that are familiar with rock guitar music would be able to identify the vibrato of Jimi Hendrix from Eric Clapton or Jeff Beck as being unique and different after only a couple of notes. But the truth is that they were all playing the same guitar, a Fender Stratocaster, through the same amplifier, a Marshall. What makes them unique and different is a particular style, in large part characterized by subtle pitch variations produced with string bends and vibratos.”

On LinnStrument, pitch variations are accomplished very naturally by moving your fingers along the X-axis as if each row is a string. To perform vibrato, wiggle your finger horizontally. To bend or slide a note, move your finger along the row to the desired ending pitch.  The following brief video of the flute solo intro in The Marshall Tucker Band “Can’t You See” demonstrates slight pitch variations and vibrato on LinnStrument:

Let’s move from discussing pitch variations to examining the use of volume variations, more formally known as dynamics, for musical expression.


Another very effective means of musical expression is to vary the volume (loudness) of notes, which is often referred to in musical terms as dynamics. Some dynamics such as pianissimo (very soft), and sforzando (forceful accent) are concerned with the relative volume of notes when first played. Other dynamics such as crescendo (gradually becoming louder), and tremolo (pulsating change of volume) indicate changes in volume while a note is being played.

Most instruments allow you to play a note at a desired volume, but not all of them allow you to vary the volume of a note as it is being played. For example, you can vary the initial volume of a note on the piano with the velocity of a key press, but the subsequent volume of the note is not usually under your control. By contrast, most wind instruments give you continuous control of volume.

On LinnStrument, volume variations are accomplished very naturally by varying the downward (Z-axis) pressure of your fingers. To increase the loudness of a note, press harder on the note pad. To perform tremolo, repeatedly increase and decrease pressure on the note pad.

Now that we’ve discussed varying pitch (X-axis), and volume (Z-axis), we’ll move on to varying timbre (Y-axis) for a third dimension of musical expression.


A sort of catch-all category, timbre is what makes two notes that have the same pitch and volume distinguishable from each other. For example, a note played on a trumpet has a much different timbre than that same note played on a cello.  Timbre is often referred to as tone color or texture, and characterized by terms such as bright, warm, and harsh.

Varying the timbre of notes is a very effective means of musical expression, as evidenced by many of the flute solos that Ian Anderson of Jethro Tull has recorded, such as his flute solo from “My God.”

On LinnStrument, timbre variations are accomplished very naturally by rolling your fingers forward or backward on the Y-axis. The resulting variation in sound is dependent upon the corresponding feature in the synthesized instrument.

Please take a look at this video of Roger Linn demonstrating on LinnStrument the three dimensions of expression (pitch, volume, and timbre) discussed to this point.

There are, of course, more facets of musical expressions than just varying pitch, volume, and timbre. One of these facets, known as phrasing, is concerned with varying note durations:


One of the most natural ways to express oneself musically is to intuitively vary the duration of notes, shaping the notes in time. This concept is known as musical phrasing, and one of the core ideas is to use “stolen time” (tempo rubato in Italian) from some notes and give it to other notes.

So, domo arigato tempo rubato, portamento, vibrato, pianissimo, sforzando, crescendo, tremolo, timbre, et cetera, for enabling musical expression!

James Weaver
Twitter: @JavaFXpert

My God! It’s full of stars!

Images from wikipedia.org and rogerlinndesign.com (click to enlarge)

In the Space Odyssey series when Dr. Bowman approached the monolith in space and was pulled inside, he observed that “It’s full of stars!”  I was reminded of that quote when first looking at the chord and scale constellations (shapes) superimposed on the monolith-shaped LinnStrument in the Roger Linn Design website.  Please take a moment to study that page, and then refer to the following graphic from the page as we dive into relevant concepts and put them into practice.


Chord and scale shapes. Image from rogerlinndesign.com (click to view page)

Locating the C stars (LEDs)

Representing the default LinnStrument tuning, there are 17 blue LEDs on the Chord and scale shapes figure above, five of which are middle C.

Middle C. From wikipedia.org

Middle C. (wikipedia.org)

The five middle C LEDs are easy to locate, as they appear near an imaginary diagonal line drawn from the upper-left corner to the lower-right corner of the playing surface.  On a parallel line above the middle C LEDs are four blue LEDs that represent C on the treble clef (this blog will refer to these as treble C).  On a parallel line above those are two blue LEDs that represent C above the treble clef (this blog will refer to these as high C).

Similarly, on a parallel line below the middle C LEDs are four blue LEDs that represent C on the bass clef (this blog will refer to these as bass C).  On a parallel line below those are two blue LEDs that represent C below the bass clef (this blog will refer to these as low C).  Please take a moment to locate all of these C LEDs on the Chord and scale shapes figure above.

Using the C LEDs to locate all of the notes on the playing surface

Because the default LinnStrument tuning uses a perfect fourth musical interval between each row, any given note pad on the playing surface is a perfect fourth (five semitones) higher than the note pad directly below it.  Looking at the Chord and scale shapes figure again, notice for example that the note directly above each C is always an F.  By extension, the musical interval between any two note pads on the playing surface is the same as any other two note pads that have the same spacial relationship.  For example, the note directly below and two columns to the right of a note pad is always a descending minor third musical interval.  As a result, notice on the Chord and scale shapes figure that when the starting note is C, the note directly below and two columns to the right is always an A.  By familiarizing yourself with the spacial relationships on the playing surface of the musical intervals in the following figure, you can locate all of the notes in the vicinity of a given note pad.  This is useful for identifying notes relative to a C LED, or relative to a note currently being played.

Intervals related to center note pad

Spacial relationship of intervals to a given note pad

Another aid that I’ve found helpful for memorizing the location of notes in relationship to the nearby C LEDs is the following figure:


Natural note relationships to C LEDs

Notice in the figure above that there are three blue LEDs that represent three Cs in consecutive octaves.  These LEDs may be mentally lined up with blue LEDs while playing the LinnStrument to locate any note on the playing surface.  For an additional aid in locating notes on the playing surface, see the following figure that contains the location of the natural notes on the musical staff:


Location of the natural notes on the musical staff (click to enlarge)

Playing scales on LinnStrument

The Chord and scale shapes figure suggests a pattern for playing a major scale in a single octave.  That pattern is also represented by the C major scale in the top three rows of the Natural note relationships to C LEDs figure shown previously.  There are, of course, additional patterns for a single octave major scale, one of which is represented by the C major scale in the bottom three rows on that same figure.  A two octave major scale may therefore be played by combining these patterns as shown in that figure.  These ideas for playing major scales may be applied to other kinds of scales as well.

Playing chords on LinnStrument

Please take another look at the Chord and scale shapes figure, noticing that it suggests shapes for some commonly used chords, including a major triad in all three inversions.  There are, of course, additional shapes possible for the chords shown in the figure.

Guitar players may find some of these shapes familiar, namely the shapes that are played on guitar strings 3 and lower.  For example the shape of the fingered notes in an open E chord on the guitar is the same as the major triad 2nd inversion on the Chord and scale shapes figure.


Guitar open E chord

When playing chords and scales on LinnStrument, it is beneficial to experiment with various fingerings, including the use of thumb and pinky (little finger).  You’ll find that some fingerings are more comfortable than others, increasing the potential for playing accuracy.  You may also find, as I do, that the pinkies are very useful in some chord and scale shapes, but they require extra practice to approach the strength and accuracy of other fingers.

Thus Spake Zarathustra

In keeping with the theme of this article, I’d like to play for you a well-known piece from Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey on LinnStrument.  This is the initial fanfare, entitled “Sunrise”, from Thus spake Zarathustra (Strauss), which demonstrates some of the concepts discussed in this article.  I’ve taken the liberty of annotating the triads and their inversions in the video.

James Weaver
Twitter: @JavaFXpert

Exploring a Musical Matrix

Morpheus: I know *exactly* what you mean. Let me tell you why you’re here. You’re here because you know something. What you know you can’t explain, but you feel it. You’ve felt it your entire life, that there’s something wrong with the world. You don’t know what it is, but it’s there, like a splinter in your mind, driving you mad. It is this feeling that has brought you to me. Do you know what I’m talking about?

Neo: The Matrix.

I’ve played various musical instrument as long as I can remember, focusing my younger years on piano, trumpet and guitar.  As a lifelong software developer, I instinctively put information in matrices,  and have always felt the desire to play an instrument whose notes were arranged in that manner.  This led me to play instruments such as the Chapman Stick, and to create a mobile tablet-based instrument that I named ZenGuitar3D:

Along the way, I was intrigued with the instruments that colleague and occasional NullPointers bandmate/frontman Geert Bevin (second from the left in this video thumbnail) …

… played, such as the Eigenharp and most recently the LinnStrument:


Like Neo in The Matrix, I recognized that this brainchild of Roger Linn was a manifestation of what I’d  been longing for:  An instrument whose notes are arranged in a grid pattern, and enable musical expression found in keyboard as well as stringed instruments, demonstrated by this video in which I play Paul McCartney’s Blackbird.  The left side of the video contains the accompaniment, and the right side contains the melody played while listening to the accompaniment recorded a few minutes earlier.

In upcoming posts I plan to explore facets of LinnStrument that help you get up to speed on playing it, should you decide to take the red pill like I did 🙂

James Weaver
Twitter: @JavaFXpert